To whom does the title New Eve refer? To Mary, or to the Church? And is one of these usages in a meaningful way older than the other?
I'm not aware of any study that seeks whether one of these analogies historically depends more on or derives from the other than conversely (e.g., whether the title of Church as New Eve derives to a significant extent from the understanding of Mary as New Eve, or whether conversely, the title of Mary as New Eve derives to a significant extent from the understanding of the Church as New Eve)–though see the citation from the New Catholic Encyclopedia below. In any case, both of these analogies (Mary as New Eve and the Church as New Eve) seem to be proximately and firmly rooted in the Scriptures, and are theologically almost inseparable. That Mary, Mother and Type of the Church, has the role of the New Eve, is intimately bound up with the nature of the Church as the New Eve.
Both analogies are clearly found in the Fathers:
Mary as New Eve
Just as Eve … being disobedient, became a cause of death for herself and the whole human race: so Mary … being obedient, became a cause of salvation for herself and the whole human race (St. Irenaeus, Against Heresies, III, xxii, 4).
Christ became man by the Virgin that the disobedience which issued from the serpent might be destroyed in the same way it originated. Eve was still an undefiled virgin when she conceived the word of the serpent and brought forth disobedience and death. But the Virgin received faith and joy, at the announcement of the angel Gabriel…and she replied, "Be it done to me according you your word". So through the mediation of the Virgin he came into the world, through whom God would crush the serpent (St. Justin Martyr, Apologia, ch. 100).
Church as New Eve
As Adam was a figure of Christ, Adam’s sleep shadowed out the death of Christ… that from the wound inflicted on His side might, in like manner (as Eve was formed), be typified the church, the true mother of the living. (Tertullian, Treatise on the Soul, ch. 43).
The apostle directly referred to Christ the words which had been spoken of Adam. For thus will it be most certainly agreed that the Church is formed out of His bones and flesh; and it was for this cause that the Word, leaving His Father in heaven, came down to be “joined to His wife;” and slept in the trance of His passion, and willingly suffered death for her, that He might present the Church to Himself glorious and blameless, having cleansed her by the laver, for the receiving of the spiritual and blessed seed, which is sown by Him who with whispers implants it in the depths of the mind; and is conceived and formed by the Church, as by a woman. so as to give birth and nourishment to virtue….
[When Paul] was grown to a man, and was built up, then being molded to spiritual perfection, he was made the help-meet and bride of the Word; and receiving and conceiving the seeds of life, he who was before a child, becomes a church and a mother, himself laboring in birth of those who, through him, believed in the Lord, until Christ was formed and born in them also. For he says, “My little children, of whom I travail in birth again until Christ be formed in you; “ and again, “In Christ Jesus I have begotten you through the Gospel.”
It is evident, then, that the statement respecting Eve and Adam is to be referred to the Church and Christ. (St. Methodius, The Banquet of the Ten Virgins, Discourse 3, Ch. 8-9.)
Adam sleeps that Eve may be formed; Christ dies that the Church may be
formed. Eve is formed from the side of the sleeping Adam; the side of the dead
Christ is pierced by the lance, so that the Sacraments may flow out, of which the
Church is formed. Is there anyone to whom it is not obvious that future events
are represented by the things done then, since the Apostle says that Adam himself
was the figure of Him that was to come? (St. Augustine, In Ioannis evangelium tractatus 9, 10; translated by W. A. Jurgens, The Faith of the Early Fathers, vol. 3 (Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press, 1979), 117.
From the article on Mariology in the New Catholic Encyclopedia:
Mary’s spiritual motherhood of the members of the Mystical Body appears clearly only in the 12th century, e.g., in Hermann of Tournai. A factor here is the mutual enrichment of Mariology and the theology about the Church. The maternal meaning that has always been part of the concept of the Church as new Eve is applied now also to Our Lady as new Eve. ‘‘Like the Church of which she is the figure, Mary is mother of all those who are born again to life’’ (Guerric of Igny, d. 1155; Patrologia Latina, 185:188).
… The National Conference of Catholic Bishops (NCCB) in the pastoral on the Blessed Virgin Mary points out: ‘‘Even more anciently, the Church was regarded as the ‘New Eve.’ The Church is the bride of Christ, formed from his side in the sleep of death on the cross, as the first Eve was formed by God from the side of the sleeping Adam’’ (NCCB 41). ("Mariology", edited by E. R. Carroll and F. M. Jelly, New Catholic Encyclopedia).
4 thoughts on “Who is the New Eve?”
Why has no one considered that the last 2000 years since Jesus has been spent forming the New Eve? The world was running after the Fall of man. Jesus came several millenia later. The New Eve is formed in the faith that Jesus taught. The church will attend Jesus' wedding. Everyone cannot marry one man. But everyone can be a witness to the wedding of one man. We have never been anything but witnesses of God. If the New Eve is the church as a whole, then the woman of Revelation 12 makes no sense. Symbols overlap. The Rev 12 sign may have represented the birth of the New Adam, but that does not translate that He will be ruling with the woman that gave birth to Him.
The woman in revelation 12 is the entire nation of Israel during the new covenant. The woman had “other offspring”…. meaning the Christian gentiles. The woman is the faithful remnant of Israel who became the church. The nation of Israel is called “the Daughter of Zion” and a “pregnant nation”… So indeed, she is the new Eve. In genesis 3:15 the seed of the woman (the daughter of Zion) will crush the serpent’s head; meaning the second coming of Jesus Christ
Jennifer,it’s a yes and scenario. Yes Isreal, yes Mary, And yes the Church. Isreal suffered as a nation to birth the Christ, Mary is the woman ( 2nd Eve and model of the church who actually Gave the physical birth (painlessly because child pains was a result of the curse), the Church is the offspring of Mary also, in that she is the spouse of the Holy Spirit, The Mother of God (who is our spouse, He Who dressed as priest and king as The Jewish groom did at wedding rituals. He then lay down his life on the cross and while asleep (as Adam was) Jesus side is pierced giving birth to the church through the sacraments of blood (The Eucharist) and water (baptism).
Well and clearly stated, Mark. Thank you for making the comparisons clear in an orderly manner.