I've recently had the occasion, in working with a student on predestination, to consider once again the role of predestination in St. Paul's letter to the Romans. It seems to some that the doctrine of predestination is at best useless, and at worst a dangerous doctrine, which tends to produce either presumption or despair. There are perhaps some grounds for that. When predestination is interpreted to mean that what one does is irrelevant to whether or not one is saved, or that God chooses out men for damnation, and makes them sin so that they will be damned. I give here an example of such an interpretation by a man named Darwin Fish. I don't give a link to the website because as a whole it's not particularly worth reading.
Although it is true that God loves both the wicked and the righteous (Matthew 5:43-45; John 3:16), it is also true that before the world was created, God chose to love only a few people and destine them to eternal life in the kingdom of heaven (Matthew 7:13-14; Romans 9:6-23; Ephesians 1:4). He chose to hate the rest of mankind and destine them to hell for eternity (Matthew 7:13-14; Romans 9:6-23). This choice was not based on any action on the part of those whom God chose (Romans 9:11, 16, 18), but rather it was based on God's own good pleasure and purpose (Ephesians 1:4-5). It was not based on works (Romans 9:11, 20-23; Ephesians 1:5; Philippians 2:13; Psalm 115:3).
It is not surprising that this way of interpreting and describing predestination can lead to spiritual apathy or despair!
Predestination in St. Paul
But how does St. Paul see predestination? As the eternal plan of the loving God, the fundamental initiative in our salvation by God, who "desires all men to be saved and to come to the knowledge of the truth," Paul sees predestination as a cause for humility before the God who grants us all the good we have, even whatever good is in our own wills–"Do not become proud, but stand in awe" (Romans 11:20)–but also as a reason for confidence, gratitude, and spiritual activity.
God's gift does not remove human freedom, but calls for human cooperation
To emphasize that God's good will and grace precedes everything good we do, St. Paul says "by grace you have been saved through faith; this is not your own doing, it is the gift of God – not because of works, lest any man should boast" (Ephesians 2:8), but to show the connection between God's initiative and man's cooperation, he says: "Work out your own salvation with fear and trembling; for God is at work in you, both to will and to work for his good pleasure" (Phil 2:13) The fact that God is at work even in our very wills is no reason for apathy, but rather a reason to earnestly cooperate with him. Since God "wills all men to be saved and to come to the knowledge of the truth" (1 Tim 2:4), his chief work in the human spirit is "faith working through love" (Gal 5:6); one who would refuse or neglect to "work out his salvation" would thus be closing himself to God's movement. The more God works in us, the more (not less) necessary is our own willing and working.
Predestination brings confidence and trust
St. Paul does not only see the priority of God's work over ours as an incentive to cooperate with God, he also sees it as a cause of confidence. Because God loves us far more than we love ourselves (Cf. Rom 5:6-10), and his wisdom infinitely surpasses ours (Cf. Rom 11:33-34), St. Paul's teaching that it is always God who has the initiative in salvation is intended to, and ought to inspire a great confidence in God. Having recalled the working out of God's foreknowledge and predestination in calling, justifying, and glorifying, Paul goes on to say: "If God is for us, who is against us?… Who shall separate us from the love of Christ? Shall tribulation, or distress, or persecution, or famine, or nakedness, or peril, or sword?. No, in all these things we are more than conquerors through him who loved us" (Rom 8:31, 35, 37). If we had to rely upon ourselves, we would surely be in a sorry state. But we have an infinitely more sure foundation on which to rely, God himself. From God's side, his love and grace will never fail; he will never fail nor forsake us (Cf. Heb 13:5), and will never permit us to be tempted beyond our strength (1 Cor 10:13). The only thing that can separate us from Christ is our own refusal to accept and bring his love into our lives; only "if we deny him, he also will deny us" (2 Tim 2:12)
It is true, as St. Peter says, that in the writings of St. Paul "There are some things hard to understand, which the ignorant and unstable twist to their own destruction, as they do the other scriptures" (2 Peter 3:16). But when we rightly understand the doctrine of predestination, it is a source of humility, simplicity, trust, and gratitude towards God.
Naturally this post is not intended to explain all aspects of predestination, but only to point out some of the spiritual benefits the doctrine is meant to bring.
8 thoughts on “Predestination and hope in St. Paul”
The only thing that can separate us from Christ is our own refusal to accept and bring his love into our lives; only "if we deny him, he also will deny us" (2 Tim 2:12)
We were prepared for glory before the creation. Clearly to "deny him" is only an illusion that Timothy believed and Paul did not.
Oh silly me, that would be Paul disagreeing with Paul…hmm…
There is widespread belief that Paul did not write Timothy Epistles. I would agree totally. Timothy lacks the spirit-filled faith I find in Paul.
Well, that is certainly an argument that the Epistles have different authors.
On the other hand, there are many others who find the the Epistles to Timothy equally to show spirit-filled faith, and that is just as valid an argument.
Clearly, then, one needs a more objective argument to settle the issue.
There is a excellent book that describes the Catholic understanding of predestination well and in depth. It is "The Meaning of Grace" by Charles Journet. Very profound and yet understandable.
While I am not studied in this area (predestination) – However, as for me, the only plausible predestination possible is the Love of God for human kind as shown through the birth, life, death, resurrection and ascension of Christ. "Christ, crucified before the foundations of the world." That is predestination!! We cannot even love God except He first loved and loves us! The only predestination we could possibly count as legitimate comes from the heart of God.
The following might be difficult to swallow but I think that the 10 commandments are declarative statements from God knowing (predestining?) that these are satisfied in and through Jesus and Him Alone. It is only in Him and He in us our Hope of Glory that these commands are satisfied. The only predestination I know of is that man without God is doomed. I do plan I getting the recommended book. Thanks, Pam
It is true, as Peter says, that in the writings of Paul "There are some things hard to understand, which the ignorant and unstable twist to their own destruction, as they do the other scriptures" (2 Peter 3:16). But when we rightly understand the doctrine of predestination, it is a source of humility, simplicity, trust, and gratitude towards God who does all things to His glory.
Notice that the scripture reveals that the New Covenant is primarily a covenant between His Son and Him. We are incidental in that we become a part of the New Covenant only when we are called to believe on the work of the Son as prescribed as per the covenant between Father and the Son.
If God predetermined who would be saved then He wouldn't have sent Jesus to save us. We can only go to God, the Father, through Jesus.